Nuclear Decommissioning


UCC is the premier global provider of underwater services to both the commercial and government nuclear industry. We understand that owners and operators expect service providers to aid in achieving goals, maintaining and improving safety, minimizing cost, and facilitating regulatory interaction. As the first commercial diving company to specialize in services to nuclear plants, UCC has set a standard for safety, reliability and cost effectiveness which the industry has come to expect.

UCC maintains a quality assurance program that meets the requirements of 10 CFR 50 Appendix B, N-QA1, ANSI N45.2. UCC is a participating member of the Nuclear Industry Assessment Committee (NIAC) audit program which is similar to the joint audit program operated by utilities through the Nuclear Procurement Issues Committee (NUPIC). We are also audited periodically by NUPIC. Safety related programs for inspection and maintenance meet applicable industry codes and standards as set forth by ASME, ASTM, ANSI, and other industry organizations.

Decommissioning is essentially a two-part process for dealing with the surplus nuclear facilities: deactivation to stabilize each facility and reduce its maintenance costs, and decommissioning when technically and financially appropriate. Facilities that will eventually require deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) include the following: production reactors, research reactors, chemical processing buildings, uranium, plutonium, and tritium production facilities, and gaseous diffusion plants. Divers potentially figure into both strategies.

Diver Support

Diver support for decommissioning work provides many benefits. Both government operated and commercial facilities in D&D process are committed to adhering to the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle for radiation exposure to workers while at the same time minimizing the cost of a D&D project.” This is essentially the same principal that guides the work at commercial nuclear power plants. Because water serves as an excellent radiation shield, diving has long been recognized by commercial plants as a valuable component of an ALARA program. Commercial plants also recognized that divers are frequently able to perform work at a fraction of the cost and schedule required to design and build remote tools. In addition, the protective equipment worn by divers isolates them from other possible hazards such as asbestos, lead, and certain toxic chemicals. The ability of divers to operate safely in all sorts of hazardous environments is well documented.

UCC’s extensive experience in commercial nuclear power plants and our experience with D&D suggest that the two efforts share common problems and likewise would benefit from the use of our divers for similar reasons. Working within the water shield, divers can approach highly radioactive materials while receiving minimal exposure. At close range, sometimes within arms reach, divers can perform tasks safely, quickly, and accurately. These are often tasks difficult or impossible to perform using surface workers with long handled tools or complex, expensive remote tooling. UCC divers have a number of cost effective underwater tools at their disposal. These include underwater video for project documentation, high-efficiency vacuum systems for desludging, and plasma arc cutting systems for rapid segmentation of bulky equipment.

The following summary of a recent D&D project at a DOE facility demonstrates the effectiveness of using UCC divers. These results are consistent with our experience at commercial nuclear plants.

Over 300 dives were performed with no skin contaminations. Radiological conditions were extreme with contact dose rates in the sludge ranging from 0.050 Rem/hr to 30 Rem/hr and averaging about 2 Rem/hr. Divers encountered debris with dose rates of up to 600 Rem/hr on contact. To put this in perspective, high radiation is considered to be a dose rate exceeding 0.100 Rem/hr. An actual whole body exposure of 400 to 600 Rem can result in acute radiation poisoning causing death within 30 days.

Taking advantage of the shielding provided by the water and other dose mitigation techniques, we were able to keep the diver in a 0.001 to 0.005 Rem/hr field during the majority of the work. Even though brief excursions into high dose areas were necessary, an average exposure rate of 0.006 Rem/hr was maintained for the entire dive team for the course of the project. This includes Divers, Tenders, and support personnel. Divers typically averaged 0.003 Rem/hr during diving operations keeping total exposure well below expected levels.

Over 10,000 pounds of basin debris was managed and relocated. Divers operated a desludging system to collect approximately 1,500 ft3 of sludge in a fraction of the planned task duration. Overall, it was successfully demonstrated that, on a task by task basis, divers could work more efficiently while receiving significantly less radiation exposure than topside workers using remote tools or extension poles. Much of the work performed underwater would not have been possible without the shielding afforded by the water barrier and direct access by the divers.


UCC focuses on providing services to global customers with assets located on reservoirs, lakes, rivers, harbors, and in coastal areas. This focus has allowed us to develop the technical capabilities and resources necessary to effectively serve the needs of a very unique but diverse client base.

Our services range from rapid response, to emergent work, to large scale multi-year service contracts. UCC has the capability to mobilize quickly for very specialized jobs and maintain a sustained presence when necessary. UCC has worldwide offices and operations strategically located to serve our customers.

Underwater Construction Corporation is the largest diving contractor in the world specializing in underwater services to nuclear facilities. Services include inspection, maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation. We offer a comprehensive selection of underwater services to the commercial nuclear power industry. These services include inspection, maintenance, and remedial work in the reactor vessel, fuel pool, fuel transfer system, torus, suppression pool, intake and discharge systems, pumps, traveling water screens, cooling towers, and storage tanks. UCC provides state-of-the-art underwater stainless steel welding on reactor internals, underwater plasma arc cutting, spent fuel storage rack installation and removal, coating inspection, concrete repair, and underwater mechanical services.

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